Internetowy Serwis Kolegium Lekarzy Rodzinnych Regionu Lubuskiego
 Aktualności  KLR-RL  News  Ogłoszenia  Dokumenty  Szkoła  Linki  Forum

Składka członkowska KLR

Z ogromną przyjemnością informujemy, że z łatwością można opłacić składkę członkowską (120zł/rok) korzystając e-płatności na nowej ogólnopolskiej stronie KLRwP

http://klrwp.pl/pl

Wystarczy zarejestrować się na stronie !!


WHO and CDC Recommendations on Swine Influenza
In response to the current swine influenza outbreak, the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) have each issued interim guidelines. Most of the recent cases have occurred in otherwise healthy young adults without direct swine exposure. As of April 28, 2009, 26 confirmed cases have been reported in Mexico including 7 deaths. The United States has 64 confirmed cases, primarily in New York City. There have been 6 confirmed cases in Canada, 2 in Spain, 2 in the United Kingdom, 2 in Israel and 3 in New Zealand. No deaths have been reported outside Mexico.

Antiviral resistance testing reported by the CDC finds 100% susceptibility to oseltamivir (Tamiflu) or zanamivir (Relenza) and 100% resistance to adamantanes (amantadine or rimantadine). This is different from antiviral susceptibility patterns for seasonal influenza, so sub-typing of influenza specimens is recommended in patients with influenza. CDC interim guidance for confirmed, probable or suspected cases of swine flu recommends 5-day treatment with either oseltamivir, 75 mg twice daily orally (weight-based dosing for children < 13 years old) or zanamivir, 10 mg twice daily via inhaler for adults and children > 7 years old.

Antiviral chemoprophylaxis (pre-exposure or post-exposure) with either oseltamivir or zanamivir may be indicated for individuals at high-risk of influenza complications, travelers to Mexico, workers at the Mexican border and healthcare workers with unprotected close contact with confirmed cases CDC Interim Guidance on Infection Control and Antiviral Recommendations for Patients with Confirmed or Suspected Swine Influenza A (H1N1) Virus Infection and Close Contacts). Interim guidance is also available from the World Health Organization (WHO). A patient handout with general information about swine influenza is available from EBSCO Publishing Health Library. Swine Flu (Swine Influenza) by Rebecca J. Stahl, MA This fact sheet provides general information. Check with your local or state public health department for specific information for your community. Definition Swine flu is a respiratory infection that typically only affects pigs, but it can affect humans. To date, there have been few cases of human illness. However, some infected patients have died. There is also concern that the virus could become more efficient at infecting humans. Some health experts are concerned that this could eventually cause a pandemic of this disease. A pandemic is a worldwide outbreak. The swine flu can cause mild to severe symptoms. If you think that you have this virus, call your doctor right away.
Causes TOP Type A influenza viruses cause the swine flu. But these viruses can change. The most recent outbreaks are due to a new subtype of the Type A strain. Swine flu can be spread from having contact with infected pigs. These viruses can also spread between humans in the same way that the seasonal flu is spread: " By breathing in droplets after an infected person coughs or sneezes " By touching a contaminated surface and then touching your eyes, nose, or mouth Risk Factors TOP These factors increase your chance of developing swine flu. Tell your doctor if you have any of these risk factors: " Having contact with infected pigs (eg, working in the swine industry, visiting a livestock exhibit) " Having contact with an infected person " Living in or traveling to Mexico Eating pork or pork products is not a risk factor for getting the swine flu. If you properly cook pork to 160°F (70°C), this will kill the virus.
Symptoms TOP If you have any of these symptoms, do not assume it is due to swine flu. These symptoms may be caused by other conditions. " Fever and chills " Severe muscle aches " Severe fatigue " Headache " Sore throat " Cough " Runny nose, nasal congestion " Sneezing " Watery eyes " Gastrointestinal symptoms (eg, nausea, diarrhea, vomiting) If the swine flu becomes severe, it can cause pneumonia. Deaths have occurred in people severely affected by the virus. However, this is a rare occurrence. The swine flu can also worsen underlying conditions.
Diagnosis TOP Your doctor will ask about your symptoms, medical history, and travel history. If you are at high risk for the swine flu, your doctor may give you special instructions before you visit the hospital or doctor's office (such as not going into the waiting room). During your visit, your doctor may take samples of secretions from your nose or throat to test for the virus.
Treatment TOP Talk with your doctor about the best treatment plan for you. Treatment options include the following: Antiviral Medicines Antiviral medicines used to treat the swine flu include: " Zanamivir (Relenza) o This medicine may worsen asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). " Oseltamivir (Tamiflu) Oseltamivir (and perhaps zanamivir) may increase the risk of self-injury and confusion shortly after taking, especially in children. Children should be closely monitored for signs of unusual behavior. These medications do not cure the flu. They may help relieve symptoms and decrease the duration of the illness. They should be taken within 48 hours of the first symptoms. Other Measures There are other measures that you can take, such as: " Getting plenty of rest to help your body fight the flu " Drinking a lot of liquids, including water, juice, and non-caffeinated tea " Taking over-the-counter (OTC) pain relievers, such as acetaminophen, ibuprofen, or aspirin* " Taking other OTC products (eg, decongestants, saline nasal sprays, cough medicines) o Talk to your doctor about what is safe for you or your child to take. For example, cough and cold products can cause serious side effects in young children. * Aspirin is not recommended for children or teens with a current or recent viral infection. Check with your doctor before giving a child or teen aspirin.
Prevention TOP Travel Precautions For the latest travel warnings, visit the http://wwwn.cdc.gov/travel/. Vaccine There is no vaccine to prevent the swine flu. Ways to Avoid Getting the Swine Flu There are general measures you can take to prevent getting the virus: " Avoid close contact with people who have respiratory infections. The swine flu can be spread one day before symptoms develop and up to seven days or more after becoming sick. Infected children may stay contagious for longer periods. " Wash your hands often, especially when you come in contact with someone who is sick. Rubbing alcohol-based cleaners on your hands is also helpful. " Do not share drinks or personal items. " Do not bite your nails or put your hands near your eyes, mouth, or nose. " If you have contact with pigs: o Wash your hands thoroughly and often. o Try to avoid close contact with infected pigs. Preventative Medicine for People at High Risk Medicines to prevent the swine flu, such as Zanamivir (Relenza) or Oseltamivir (Tamiflu), are recommended for: " People who have close contact with an infected person and have conditions that put them at high risk for complications (eg, having certain medical conditions or being elderly) " People who travel to Mexico and have conditions that put them at high risk for complications (eg, having certain medical conditions or being elderly) " Public health workers who have contact with an infected person Ask your doctor if you should take preventative medicine. Ways to Avoid Spreading the Swine Flu If you have the swine flu, take these steps to avoid spreading it others: " Avoid close contact with people. Stay home from school or work. " Wash your hands often. Rubbing alcohol-based cleaners on your hands is also helpful. " Cover your mouth and nose with a tissue when you cough or sneeze. Throw away the tissue after you use it. Coughing or sneezing into your elbow or upper sleeve will also keep you from spreading the flu with your hands. " Do not spit. " Do not share drinks or personal items. " Do not bite your nails or put your hands near your eyes, mouth, or nose. Ways to Take Care of Someone With the Swine Flu If you are taking care of someone who has the swine flu, follow these steps: " To prevent areas from being contaminated, try to keep the person who is sick in one room of the house. " Cover your mouth and nose while caring for the sick person. Wearing a disposable mask may be helpful. " Wash your hands after having contact with the person. " Remember that the person who is sick should have little contact with others and stay home from school or work. RESOURCES: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention http://www.cdc.gov/ World Health Organization http://www.who.int CANADIAN RESOURCES: Health Canada http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca Public Health Agency of Canada http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/index-eng.php References: Carson-DeWitt R. Avian influenza. EBSCO Health Library website. Available at:http://www.ebscohost.com/thisTopic.php?marketID=15topicID=81. Updated February 2009. Accessed April 27, 2009.Carson-DeWitt R. Flu. EBSCO Health Library website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/thisTopic.php?marketID=15topicID=81. Updated January 2009. Accessed April 27, 2009. DynaMed Editorial Team. Swine influenza. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed/what.php. Updated April 27, 2009. Accessed April 27, 2009.Human swine influenza investigation. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/ swineflu/index.htm. Updated April 27, 2009. Accessed April 27, 2009.Key facts about swine influenza (swine flu). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/swineflu/key_facts.htm. Updated April 24, 2009. Accessed April 27, 2009.Outbreak notice: swine influenza in the United States. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at: http://wwwn.cdc.gov/travel/contentSwineFluUS.aspx. Updated April 27, 2009. Accessed April 27, 2009.Podcast: swine flu. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at: http://www2a.cdc.gov/podcasts/player.asp?f=11226. Published April 25, 2009. Accessed April 27, 2009.Questions and answers: swine influenza and you. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/swineflu/swineflu_you.htm. Updated April 26, 2009. Accessed April 27, 2009.Risk of swine flu associated with travel to affected areas. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at: http://wwwn.cdc.gov/travel/contentSwineFluTravel.aspx. Updated April 27, 2009. Accessed April 27, 2009.Swine influenza (flu) in pigs and people. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/swineflu/pdf/brochure.pdf. Published April 24, 2009. Accessed April 27, 2009.Swine influenza frequently asked questions. World Health Organization website. Available at: http://www.who.int/csr/swine_flu/swine_flu_faq.pdf. Updated April 26, 2009. Accessed April 27, 2009.Last reviewed April 2009 by Brian S. Alper, MD, MSPHLast Updated: 4/28/2009This content is reviewed regularly and is updated when new and relevant evidence is made available. This information is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with questions regarding a medical condition. Editorial Policy | Privacy Policy | Terms and Conditions | Support Copyright Š 2009 EBSCO Publishing All rights reserved.

 Aktualności  KLR-RL  News  Ogłoszenia  Dokumenty  Szkoła  Linki  Forum
Serwis zaprojektowała © ePartner